Time-frequency balanced spectral entropy as a measure of anesthetic drug effect in central nervous system during sevoflurane, propofol, and thiopental anesthesia.Vakkuri A, Yli-Hankala A, Talja P, Mustola S, Tolvanen-Laakso H, Sampson T, Viertio-Oja H.Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2004 Feb;48(2):145-53. (PDF: 376KB)AbstractTime-frequency balanced spectral entropy of electroencephalogram (EEG) and frontal electromyogram (FEMG) is a novel measure of hypnosis during anesthesia. Two Entropy parameters are described: Response entropy (RE) is calculated from EEG and FEMG; and State Entropy (SE) is calculated mainly from EEG. This study was performed to validate their performance during transition from consciousness to unconsciousness under different anesthetic agents. METHODS: Response entropy, SE [S/5 Entropy Module, M-ENTROPY (later in text: Entropy), Datex-Ohmeda Division, Instrumentarium Corp., Helsinki, Finland] and BIS (BIS XP, A-2000, Aspect Medical Systems, Newton, MA) data were collected from 70 patients; 30 anesthetized with propofol 2 mg kg-1, 20 with sevoflurane inhalation, and 20 with thiopental 5 mg kg-1. Loss and regaining of consciousness (LOC, ROC) was tested every 10 s, and sensitivity, specificity, and prediction probability (Pk) were calculated. Behavior of the indices was studied. RESULTS: Sensitivity, specificity, and Pk values for consciousness were high and similar for all indices. During regaining of consciousness after propofol bolus, RE, SE, and BIS values recovered by 81 +/- 22%, 75 +/- 26%, and 59 +/- 18% (mean +/- SD), respectively, from the minimum relative to their baseline. After thiopental bolus, RE, SE, and BIS values recovered by 86+/-21%, 88 +/- 13%, and 63 +/- 14%, respectively. The relative rise was higher in RE and SE compared with BIS (P < 0.01). During deep levels of hypnosis, RE and SE decreased monotonously as a function of burst suppression ratio, while BIS showed biphasic behavior. On average, RE indicated emergence from anesthesia 11 s earlier than SE, and 12.4 s earlier than BIS. CONCLUSIONS: All indices, RE, SE, and BIS, distinguished excellently between conscious and unconscious states during propofol, sevoflurane, and thiopental anesthesia. During burst suppression, Entropy parameters RE and SE, but not BIS, behave monotonously. During regaining of consciousness after a thiopental or propofol bolus, RE and SE values recovered significantly closer to their baseline values than did BIS. Response entropy indicates emergence from anesthesia earlier than SE or BIS
Anesthesiology. 2004 Dec;101(6):1283-90. Comparative evaluation of the Datex-Ohmeda S/5 Entropy Module and the Bispectral Index monitor during propofol-remifentanil anesthesia.Schmidt GN, Bischoff P, Standl T, Hellstern A, Teuber O, Schulte Esch J.Department of Anesthesiology, University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany. firstname.lastname@example.orgBACKGROUND: Different analytical concepts were introduced to quantify the changes of the electroencephalogram. The Datex-Ohmeda S/5 Entropy Module (Datex-Ohmeda Division, Instrumentarium Corp., Helsinki, Finland) was the first commercial monitor based on the entropy generating two indices, the state entropy (SE) and the response entropy (RE). The aim of the current study was to compare the accuracy of SE and RE with the Bispectral Index(R) monitor (BIS(R); Aspect Medical Systems, Newton, MA) during propofol-remifentanil anesthesia. METHODS: The authors investigated 20 female patients during minor gynecologic surgery. SE, RE, BIS, mean arterial blood pressure, heart rate, and sedation level were recorded every 20 s during stepwise increase (target-controlled infusion, 0.5 microg/ml) of propofol until the patients lost response. Five minutes after loss of response, remifentanil infusion (0.4 microg . kg(-1) . min(-1)) was started. Spearman correlation coefficient and prediction probability were calculated for sedation levels with SE, RE, BIS, mean arterial blood pressure, and heart rate. The ability of the investigated parameters to distinguish between the anesthesia steps awake versus loss of response, awake versus anesthesia, anesthesia versus first reaction, and anesthesia versus extubation was analyzed with the prediction probability. RESULTS: SE correlates best with sedation levels, but no significant differences of the prediction probability values among SE, RE, and BIS were found. The prediction probability for all investigated steps of anesthesia did not show significant differences among SE, RE, and BIS. SE, RE, and BIS were superior to mean arterial blood pressure and heart rate. CONCLUSION: SE, RE, and BIS revealed similar information about the level of sedation and allowed the authors to distinguish between different steps of anesthesia. Both monitors provided useful additional information for the anesthesiologist.